Include any of the following four fields of education and training: • 'Audiovisual techniques and media production' is the study of techniques and the acquisition of skills to produce books, newspapers, radio/television programmes, films/videos, recorded music and graphic reproduction with ICT. It includes programmes in methods of colour reproduction, photography and computer graphics, as well as the layout for pictures, words and decorations in the production of books, magazines, posters, advertisements, etc. • Computer science is the study of the design and development of computer systems and computing environments. It includes the study of the design, maintenance and integration of software applications. • Computer use is the study of using computers and computer software and applications for different purposes. These programmes are generally of short duration. • Electronics and automation (engineering and engineering trades) is the study of planning, designing, developing, maintaining and monitoring electronic equipment, machinery and systems. It includes designing computers and equipment for communication.
Statistical units of ministries of education or, alternatively, national statistical offices.
For a detailed breakdown of ICT-related fields, please refer to Appendix III of the UIS Guide to measuring information and communication technologies (ICT) in education.