Proportion of schools offering basic services, by type of service


SDG Indicator 4.a.1: Percentage of schools by level of education (primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education) with access to the given facility or service.

Electricity: Regularly and readily available sources of power (e.g. grid/mains connection, wind, water, solar and fuel-powered generator, etc.) that enable the adequate and sustainable use of ICT infrastructure for educational purposes.

Internet for pedagogical purposes: Internet that is available for enhancing teaching and learning and is accessible by pupils. Internet is defined as a worldwide interconnected computer network, which provides pupils access to a number of communication services including the World Wide Web and carries e-mail, news, entertainment and data files, irrespective of the device used (i.e. not assumed to be only via a computer and thus can also be accessed by mobile telephone, tablet, PDA, games machine, digital TV etc.). Access can be via a fixed narrowband, fixed broadband, or via mobile network.

Computers for pedagogical use: Use of computers to support course delivery or independent teaching and learning needs. This may include activities using computers or the Internet to meet information needs for research purposes; develop presentations; perform hands-on exercises and experiments; share information; and participate in online discussion forums for educational purposes. A computer is a programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve and process data, as well as share information in a highly-structured manner. It performs high-speed mathematical or logical operations according to a set of instructions or algorithms. Computers include the following types:
• A desktop computer usually remains fixed in one place; normally the user is placed in front of it, behind the keyboard;
• A laptop computer is small enough to carry and usually enables the same tasks as a desktop computer; it includes notebooks and netbooks but does not include tablets and similar handheld devices; and
• A tablet (or similar handheld computer) is a computer that is integrated into a flat touch screen, operated by touching the screen rather than using a physical keyboard.

Adapted infrastructure is defined as any built environment related to education facilities that are accessible to all users, including those with different types of disability, to be able to gain access to use and exit from them. Accessibility includes ease of independent approach, entry, evacuation and/or use of a building and its services and facilities (such as water and sanitation), by all of the building's potential users with an assurance of individual health, safety and welfare during the course of those activities.

Adapted materials include learning materials and assistive products that enable students and teachers with disabilities/functioning limitations to access learning and to participate fully in the school environment. Accessible learning materials include textbooks, instructional materials, assessments and other materials that are available and provided in appropriate formats such as audio, braille, sign language and simplified formats that can be used by students and teachers with disabilities/functioning limitations.

Basic drinking water is defined as a functional improved drinking water source on or near the premises and water points accessible to all users during school hours. An improved drinking water source is a water delivery point that by the nature of its design protects the water from external contamination, particularly of fecal origin. Examples of improved drinking water facilities include piped water, protected wells, tubewells and boreholes, protected springs and rainwater, purchased bottled water and tanker-trucks. Unimproved water sources include unprotected wells and springs and surface water (e.g. rivers, lakes).

Basic sanitation facilities are defined as functional improved sanitation facilities separated for males and females on or near the premises. Improved sanitation facilities include a pit latrine with slab, a ventilated improved pit latrine, a flush toilet, a pour-flush toilet or a composting toilet. Unimproved facilities include a pit latrine without a slab, hanging toilets and bucket toilets.

Basic handwashing facilities are defined as functional handwashing facilities, with soap and water available to all girls and boys.

Data source

Data for this indicator comes from administrative data from governments and from the following cross-national assessments: El Laboratorio Latinoamericano de Evaluación de la Calidad de la Educación (LLECE) 2013 (Third Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (TERCE), Programme d'analyse des systèmes éducatifs de la confemen (PASEC) 2014, the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the South East Asia Primary Learning Metrics (SEA-PLM).

Source definition

UNESCO Institute for Statistics

Calculation method

The number of schools in a given level of education with access to the relevant facilities is expressed as a percentage of all schools at that level of education. For cross-national assessments with more than one assessment in the same level of education, the average of the grades is used.

Data required

Number of schools at each level of education with and without access to the given facilities.


A high value indicates that schools have good access to the relevant services and facilities. Ideally each school should have access to all these services and facilities.


The indicator measures the existence in schools of the given service or facility but not its quality or operational state. Indicators derived for cross-national assessments are estimates which have a sampling distribution including confidence interval and standard error; these estimates are generally for a specific grade within the specified level of education rather than all grades in the level.


The indicator measures access in schools to key basic services and facilities necessary to ensure a safe and effective learning environment for all students.

Quality standards

The indicator should be calculated based on data from accurate and comprehensive enumeration of schools or training institutions by level of education with and without access to the given facilities, whether these schools or training institutions are from public or private sector. The UIS maintains the global database used to produce this indicator.

Types of disaggregation

By level of education.