Indicators that surpass a theoretical maximum value are adjusted using a capping factor. The maximum value is determined using raw data from related indicators. The total, male and female values are recalculated and lowered by the capping factor so that the gender parity index of the new set of values remains the same as for the original values. For instance, net enrolment rates in primary education are capped using a factor that takes into account the male and female primary school-age populations and enrolment of primary school-age boys and girls in pre-primary, primary and secondary education. If the total enrolment of primary school-age children (whether male or female) is higher than the corresponding population, all net enrolment indicators (net enrolment rate, adjusted net enrolment rate, etc.) and their derivative indicators (out-of-school rate, etc.) are capped based on the same capping factor. In this case, the capping factor is calculated by taking the maximum of male and female enrolment and dividing by the population of primary school-age of the same sex.
UNESCO Institute for Statistics