All scientific, technological, organizational, financial, and commercial steps which actually lead, or are intended to lead, to the implementation of innovations. Some innovation activities are themselves innovative, others are not novel activities but are necessary for the implementation of innovations. Innovation activities also include R&D that is not directly related to the development of a specific innovation. The indicator is calculated as a percentage.
OECD and Eurostat (2005), Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data, §149, 351.