Natural sciences and engineering (for R&D data)


Natural sciences and engineering include:
- Natural sciences: mathematics; computer and information sciences; physical sciences; chemical sciences; earth and related environmental sciences; biological sciences; other natural sciences;
- Engineering and technology: civil engineering; electrical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering; mechanical engineering; chemical engineering; materials engineering; medical engineering; environmental engineering; environmental biotechnology; industrial biotechnology; nano-technology; and other engineering and technologies;
- Medical and health sciences: basic medicine; clinical medicine; health sciences; medical biotechnology; and other medical sciences;
- Agricultural and veterinary sciences: agriculture, forestry, and fisheries; animal and dairy science; veterinary science; agricultural biotechnology; and other agricultural sciences.

Data source

R&D surveys.

Source definition

OECD (2015), Frascati Manual 2015: Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development.


To break down R&D expenditure and personnel by fields of research and development.