GERD as a percentage of GDP


SDG Indicator 9.5.1: Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a percentage of GDP is the total intramural expenditure on R&D performed in the national territory during a specific reference period expressed as a percentage of GDP of the national territory.

Data source

R&D surveys.

Source definition

Adapted from OECD (2015), Frascati Manual 2015: Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development.

Calculation method

Total domestic intramural expenditure on R&D during a given year divided by the GDP (i.e. the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy, including distributive trades and transport, plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products) and multiplied by 100.