Types of R&D funds


R&D and the funds to cover the costs of R&D involve significant flows between units, sectors and countries. From the perspective of performance, R&D is conducted by the statistical unit with funds either from the statistical unit’s own sources (internal) or from sources outside of the statistical unit (external). From the perspective of funding, R&D funds pay for either the costs of R&D performance within the statistical unit (intramural) or the costs of R&D performance outside of the statistical unit (extramural). There can be a flow of R&D funds between statistical units either with (exchange) or without (transfer) compensatory return flows of R&D from the performer. See the relevant definitions (on ‘internal’ and ‘external’ sources of R&D funds, ‘intramural’ and ‘extramural’ R&D, and ‘exchange’ and ‘transfer’ categories of funds for R&D) in this glossary.

Source definition

OECD (2015), Frascati Manual 2015: Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development.


To break down R&D expenditure by type of funds.