Assessment that compares test-taker performances to each other, i.e. when students’ scores are ranked from low to high, and their rankings are compared to each other’s. There is no attempt to interpret the scores in terms of what students know and can do, except in the limited sense that a student’s performance is typical of other low, middle, or high performing students in the group.
American Education Research Association (AERA), American Psychological Association (APA), and National Council for Measurement in Education (NCME) (1999). Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing.