Fields of research and development (FORD)


The fields of research and development (FORD) classification is used to classify R&D units and resources by fields of enquiry, namely, broad knowledge domains based primarily on the content of the R&D subject matter. The main fields of R&D are: • Natural sciences • Engineering and technology • Medical and health sciences • Agricultural and veterinary sciences • Social sciences • Humanities and the arts.

Data source

R&D surveys.

Source definition

OECD (2015), Frascati Manual 2015: Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development.


To break down R&D expenditure and personnel by fields of research and development.