Total R&D personnel per thousand employment


All persons employed directly on R&D, as well as those providing direct services such as R&D managers, administrators and clerical staff during a given year expressed as a proportion of 1,000 employed people.

Calculation method

Number of R&D personnel during a given year divided by the total employed people and multiplied by 1,000.

Data source

R&D surveys.

Source definition

Adapted from OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development, §294-299.