Total R&D personnel by formal qualification


All persons employed directly on R&D, as well as those providing direct services such as R&D managers, administrators and clerical staff, broken down by their formal level of qualification (ISCED level 8, ISCED level 8, ISCED level 6, ISCED level 5, or all lower ISCED levels combined).

Data source

R&D surveys.

Source definition

Adapted from OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development, §294-299 and 312-318.