GERD as a percentage of GDP


Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a percentage of GDP is the total intramural expenditure on R&D performed in a national territory or region during a given year, expressed as a percentage of GDP of the national territory or region.

Calculation method

Total domestic intramural expenditure on R&D during a given year divided by the GDP (i.e. the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy, including distributive trades and transport, plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products) and multiplied by 100.

Source definition

Adapted from OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development, §423 and UIS (2009), Global Education Digest 2009.