Business enterprise intramural expenditure on R&D (BERD)


• All firms, organizations and institutions whose primary activity is the market production of goods or services (other than higher education) for sale to the general public at an economically significant price.• The private non-profit institutions mainly serving them.

Source definition

Adapted from OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development, §163.