Abroad (for R&D data)


• All institutions and individuals located outside the political borders of a country; except vehicles, ships, aircraft and space satellites operated by domestic entities and testing grounds acquired by such entities.• All international organizations (except business enterprises), including facilities and operations within a country’s borders.

Source definition

OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development, §229.


To break down R&D expenditure by source of funds.