Gender parity index (GPI)

Definition

Ratio of female to male values of a given indicator.

Calculation method

Divide the female value of an indicator by the male value of the same indicator.

Data required

Female and male values of the given indicator.

Interpretation

A GPI equal to 1 indicates parity between females and males. In general, a value less than 1 indicates a disparity in favour of boys and a value greater than 1 indicates a disparity in favour of girls. However, the interpretation should be in the other way round for indicators that should ideally approach 0% (e.g. repetition, dropout, illiteracy rates, etc). In these cases, a GPI of less than 1 indicates a disparity in favour of girls and a value greater than 1 indicates a disparity in favour of boys.

Limitations

The index does not show whether improvement or regression is due to the performance of one of the gender groups (boys or girls). Interpretation of the GPI requires trend analysis of the underlying indicators.

Purpose

The GPI measures progress towards gender parity in education participation and/or learning opportunities available for girls in relation to those available to boys.

Types of disaggregation

By level of education and by type of institution (private/public).