Percentage of repeaters


Total number of students who are enrolled in the same grade as the previous year, expressed as a percentage of total enrolment in the given grade of education.

Data source

School register, school census or surveys for data on repeaters and enrolment by grade.

Calculation method

Divide the number of students repeating a given grade in a given school year by the number of students enrolled in the same grade in the same school year and multiply by 100. It can be calculated for the whole level of education by dividing the sum of repeaters in all grades of the given level by the total enrolment of that level of education and multiply the result by 100.

Data required

Number of repeaters and enrolment by grade for the same school year.


High percentage reflects serious problems of grade repetition or the internal efficiency of the education system.


The level and maximum number of grade repetitions allowed can in some cases be determined by the educational authorities with the aim of coping with limited grade capacity and increasing the internal efficiency and flow of pupils. Care should be taken in interpreting this indicator, especially in comparisons between education systems.


To measure the extent and patterns of repetition by grade, as part of the internal efficiency of education system.

Quality standards

The definition of repeaters should be unambiguously applied to include even pupils repeating more than once in the same grade and those who repeat the same grade while transferring from one school to another. Students who were not studying in the same grade in the previous year should be excluded.

Types of disaggregation

By sex and by level of education.